Different Types of Financial Institutions (2024)

In today’s financial services marketplace, a financial institution exists to provide a wide variety of deposit, lending, and investment products to individuals, businesses, or both. While some financial institutions focus on providing services and accounts for the general public, others are more likely to serve only certain consumers with more specialized offerings.

The types of financial institutions range from banks and credit unions to investment banks and brokerage firms, to mortgage lenders. To know which financial institution is most appropriate for serving a specific need, learn about the different types of institutions and their purposes.

Key Takeaways

  • Eight major types of financial institutions provide various services from mortgage loans to investment vehicles.
  • Financial institutions help regulate the economy, ensure fair financial practices, and facilitate prosperity.
  • The major categories of financial institutions are central banks, retail and commercial banks, internet banks, credit unions, savings and loan (S&L) associations, investment banks and companies, brokerage firms, insurance companies, and mortgage companies.

Within a capitalistic economic system, financial institutions help regulate the economy, ensure fair financial practices, and facilitate prosperity. There is no hard and fast list of types of financial institutions. Title 31 of the U.S. Code lists 31 types, while industry sources list a lot fewer. But for most consumers and investors, these are the most important financial institutions to know about.

1. Central Banks

Central banks are the financial institutions responsible for overseeing and managing all other banks. In the United States, the central bank is the Federal Reserve Bank (Fed), which is responsible for conducting monetary policy and supervising and regulating financial institutions.

Individual consumers do not have direct contact with a central bank. Instead, large financial institutions work directly with the Fed to provide products and services to the general public.

2. Retail andCommercial Banks

Traditionally, retail banks offered products to individual consumers, while commercial banks worked directly with businesses. Today, most large banks offer deposit accounts, loans, and limited financial advice to both consumers and businesses.

Products offered at retail and commercial banks include checking and savings accounts, certificates of deposit (CDs), personal and mortgage loans, credit cards, and business banking accounts.

Internet banks offer the same products and services as conventional banks, but they do so through online platforms instead of brick-and-mortar locations. Internet banks may allow consumers to carry out banking services via computer, mobile device, Automated Teller Machine (ATM), or by calling a customer service line. Using your phone and the bank's app, you can deposit checks into your account by taking a picture of your check.

3. Credit Unions

A credit union is a type ofnonprofit financial institution providing traditional banking services and is created, owned, and operated by its members.

Historically, credit unions used to serve a specific and shared demographic group, also known as the field of membership. The commonality might be based on employer, a geographic area, or membership in another type of group. Today, many have loosened membership restrictions and are open to the general public with minimal requirements, such as joining a nonprofit organization for a small fee.

Credit unions are not publicly traded and only need to make enough money to continue daily operations, so they often can afford to provide reduced fees and better interest rates than banks.

4. Savings and Loan (S&L) Associations

Savings and loan associations provide individual consumers with checking accounts, personal loans, and home mortgages. Financial institutions are owned by their customers or community. A savings and loan is a type of thrift that is required by law to produce a certain number of loans secured by residential real estate, but the aim of most savings and loans is to lend for residential mortgages.

5. Investment Banks

Investment banks are financial institutions that provide services and act as an intermediary in complex transactions—for instance, when a startup is preparing for an initial public offering (IPO), or when one company is merging with another. They can also act as a broker or financial advisor for large institutional clients such as pension funds.

Investment banks help individuals, businesses, and governments raise capital through the issuance of securities.

6. Brokerage Firms

Brokerage firms assist individuals and institutions in buying and selling securities among available investors. Customers of brokerage firms can place trades of stocks, bonds, mutual funds, exchange-traded funds (ETFs), and some alternative investments.

7. Insurance Companies

Financial institutions that help individuals transfer the risk of loss are known as insurance companies. Individuals and businesses use insurance companies to protect against financial loss due to death, disability, accidents, property damage, and other misfortunes. These companies can also include the self-insurance programs of other financial institutions such, as a savings and loan holding company. Some insurance will partner with banks to sell insurance products to the customer pool.

8. Mortgage Companies

Financial institutions that specialize in originating or funding mortgage loans are mortgage companies. While most mortgage companies serve the individual consumer market, some specialize in lending options for commercial real estate only.

Mortgage companies focus exclusively on originating loans and seek funding from financial institutions that provide the capital for the mortgages.

Many mortgage companies today operate online or have limited branch locations, which allows for lower mortgage costs and fees.

What Is a Financial Intermediary?

A financial intermediary is an entity that acts as the middleman between two parties, generally banks or funds, in a financial transaction. A financial intermediary may lower the cost of doing business.

How Do Banks Make Money?

Banks make money by charging a variety of fees and by earning interest from loans such as mortgages, auto loans, business loans, and personal loans. The bank pays depositors interest for using money to make those loans. The bank's profit comes from difference between what the bank earns on fees and interest and what it pays depositors.

Are All Financial Institutions Safe?

Yes, barring an economic catastrophe. Banks and credit unions are generally safe places to keep your money, because they are insured by the federal government via two agencies: the Federal Deposit Insurance Corp. (FDIC) and the National Credit Union Administration (NCUA). This insurance covers your principal and any interest you’re owed through the date of your bank’s default, up to $250,000 in combined total balances.

Are Cryptocurrency Exchanges Considered Financial Institutions?

It’s complicated. Despite a large number of cryptocurrency investors and blockchain firms in the United States, the country hasn’t yet developed a clear regulatory framework for the asset class. The Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) typically views cryptocurrency as a security, while the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) calls Bitcoin a commodity, and the Treasury calls it a currency.

Crypto exchanges in the United States fall under the regulatory scope of the Bank Secrecy Act (BSA) and must register with the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN). They are also required to comply with anti-money laundering (AML) and combating the financing of terrorism (CFT) obligations.

The Bottom Line

There are eight major types of financial institutions that provide a variety of services from mortgage loans to investment vehicles. Financial institutions are vital for regulating the economy, ensuring fair financial practices, and facilitating prosperity.

The major categories of financial institutions are central banks, retail and commercial banks, credit unions, savings and loan associations, investment banks and companies, brokerage firms, insurance companies, and mortgage companies.

Different Types of Financial Institutions (2024)


What are the 5 types of financial institutions? ›

Types of financial institutions include:
  • Banks.
  • Credit unions.
  • Community development financial institutions.
  • Utilities.
  • Government lenders.
  • Specialized lenders.

What are the 9 financial institutions? ›

The major categories of financial institutions are central banks, retail and commercial banks, credit unions, savings and loan associations, investment banks and companies, brokerage firms, insurance companies, and mortgage companies.

What are the 4 types of non financial institutions? ›

Examples of nonbank financial institutions include insurance firms, venture capitalists, currency exchanges, some microloan organizations, and pawn shops. These non-bank financial institutions provide services that are not necessarily suited to banks, serve as competition to banks, and specialize in sectors or groups.

What are financial institutions? ›

A financial institution is an entity that engages significantly in finance-related activities. These activities include such easily recognized examples as taking deposits and making loans as well as less-obvious ones like collecting debts and keeping records of consumers' credit histories.

What are the 4 types of financial institutions? ›

The most common types of financial institutions include banks, credit unions, insurance companies, and investment companies. These entities offer various products and services for individual and commercial clients, such as deposits, loans, investments, and currency exchange.

What are the 3 types of financial institutions? ›

They are commercial banks, thrifts (which include savings and loan associations and savings banks) and credit unions. These three types of institutions have become more like each other in recent decades, and their unique identities have become less distinct.

What are the top 4 financial institutions? ›

The “big four banks” in the United States are JPMorgan Chase, Bank of America, Wells Fargo, and Citibank. These banks are not only the largest in the United States, but also rank among the top banks worldwide by market capitalization, with JPMorgan Chase being the most valuable bank in the world.

What is the most common financial institution? ›

Banks are the most common financial institution because they offer the most financial services. Checking accounts, savings accounts, home loans (mortgages), car loans, student loans, investment advice, ATMs, direct deposit and foreign currency swaps are just some of the many services banks offer.

What financial institution is 10? ›

The institution number (bank number) for CIBC is 010.

What are the 6 financial institutions? ›

A guide to selecting the right FI for your business.
  • Retail and commercial banks. Banks are undoubtedly the most recognized and familiar financial institutions. ...
  • Credit unions. ...
  • Investment companies. ...
  • Savings banks. ...
  • Internet or online banks. ...
  • Government-backed banks.
Mar 24, 2023

What are the two primary types of financial institutions? ›

The two major types of financial institutions are depository institutions (those that accept checking and similar accounts) and nondepository institutions. What are the primary differences between commercial banks and savings banks? Today commercial and savings banks offer many of the same services.

What are different types of banks? ›

Daily Current Affairs
  • Central Bank.
  • Cooperative Banks.
  • Commercial Banks.
  • Regional Rural Banks (RRB)
  • Local Area Banks (LAB)
  • Specialized Banks.
  • Small Finance Banks.
  • Payments Banks.

Are all banks financial institutions? ›

"Bank" is a term people use broadly to refer to many different types of financial institutions. What you think of as your "bank" may be a bank and trust company, a savings bank, a savings and loan association or other depository institution.

What are the four main types of bank accounts? ›

The four basic types are checking account, savings account, certificate of deposit and money market account. Each kind of account serves a different purpose. For instance, a checking account is geared toward covering everyday expenses, while a savings account is designed to help achieve short-term financial goals.

What is the difference between a bank and a financial institution? ›

The non-banking financial institution which comes under the category of financial institutions cannot accept deposits into savings and demand deposit accounts. A bank is a financial institution which can accept deposits into various savings and demand deposit accounts, and give out loans.

What are the five types of financial institutions and describe their main functions? ›

These organizations are called financial institutions. They include banks, credit unions, insurance companies, and brokerage firms. Financial institutions play a big role in our lives, helping us do things like save for college, buy a car, or even start a business.

What are the most common types of financial institutions? ›

Below are the 9 major types of financial institutions:
  1. Insurance Companies. Insurance companies are businesses that offer protection against potential future losses. ...
  2. Credit Unions. ...
  3. Mortgage Companies. ...
  4. Investment Banks. ...
  5. Brokerage Firms. ...
  6. Central Banks. ...
  7. Internet Banks in the UK. ...
  8. Savings and Loan Associations.

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